The Ministry of Education focused on the humanities and social sciences research base
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Seminar Report


Article Abstract


The Ancient Sichuan and the Civilization in Southeast Asia
Duanyu

Abstract: It is recorded"Shu,Yue,Jiaozhi"in ancient Chinese Literature.Shu refers to the Sichuan province.Yue refers to "Pu Yue" and "Dian Yue"distributed in Southwest China and Southeast Asia.Jiaozhi is located in the northern part of the Indochina Peninsula ,which includes Luofield, Luoking, Luomarquis and Luogeneral. Historical records and archaeological data fit remarkably well:There were found many jade zhang blades in Red River Valley of northern Vietnam.Their shapes are very similar to Sanxingdui culture(1700-1100B.C) in Sichuan ,China.Yili sites found collared jade Bis,stone Bis and class-A ash-pit in Vinh phuc province in northern Vietnam.Their shapes are similar to Sanxingdui cluture.The bronze dagger-axe of Shu have been unearthed in many sites where are in Liangshan Prefecture of Sichuan province,Yunnan and Dongshan Bronze Age culture of Vietnam.The similar inscription on the bronze dagger-axe with Sichuan have been unearthed in Vietnam. Archaeological sites and unearthed cultural relics are distributed in traffic line from Sichuan to southeast Asia. It shows that the traffic line was smooth from Sichuan,Yunnan to the Indian Peninsula in the Pre-Qin period and confirmed cultural exchange interaction of sino-vietnam since Shang dynasty.


The Opening of Wuchidao and Related Issues
Duanyu

Abstract:Wuchidao is an important traffic path from Sichuan Basin to Xinanyi area and an important traffic from ancient Southwest China to Southeast Asia and South Asia.However,the academia has not been made the thorough careful analysis and study about the opening of Wuchidao for a long time.Most scholars agree that Wuchidao was opened in the late period of the Warring States or Qin Dynasty,but this is a misunderstanding of the historical literature documents when was the Wuchidao opened.Wuchidao is the most important transport corridor between the ancient Shu kingdom and Xinanyi in pre-Qin period by careful analysis records of the Historical Records,Han Shu and the archaeological data of southwest China in recent years.Wuchidao was not opened in the late period of the Warring States or Qin Dynasty but opened by Wuding of the ancient Shu kingdom in Shang dynasty.

Key words:Wuchidao;open-time;Wuding; the late Shang Dynasty.


Origins of the Sea Shells and Ivories Found in Southwest China in the Pre-Qin Period
Duanyu

The researches on historical documents both at home and abroad reveal that before the Qin Dynasty there was a communication line dedicated to commercial activities running across Southwest China, Myanmar, India and Middle Asia. The studies on the newly found archeological materials confirm the definite existence of the communication line between Southwest China and India in Shang-Zhou Dynasty, which, through the communication line crossing India, Middle Asia, Iran and West Asia, Absorbed many factors from the culture of the Near East.


The Two Mechanisms of Chiefdom and State's Forming
Duanyu

Evolution of the road is not the same from prehistory to civilization in the ancient society,but often the character of society are striking similarities.For instance, E.Service described the four continuous evolution stages of the ancient society:team group,tribe,chiefdom,state.In the specific ancient societies,however,it does necessarily follow the evolution model of continuous the linear development.Some chiefdoms disappeared in the evolution to the state¡¯s eve.The same level of some chiefdoms always hung around for long.The evolution of others directly or indirectly is not consistent with the early states that their form,size or level of development.From the wide range of perspective rather than from a specific region,the process of the evolution of human society from prehistory to civilization or from tribe to state,continuous or non-continuous develop two types of political organizations that they are chiefdom and kingdom.On the nature, the Chiefdom is the highest form of political organization in prehistoric times, however, the kingdom is the historical period or civilization original form of political organization. It is difficult to clearly distinguish the nature of the two types of political organizations in this special historical period of prehistoric alternating with civilization and often confuse them.Of course,from the view of early state of the origin and formation,we can say that occurrence and evolution course of the early state including two types of different forms of political organizations from prehistory to civilization.The process includes not only chiefdom is the form of political organization which is called ¡®prehistoric states¡¯,but also kingdom is the form of political organization which is called ¡®early states¡¯.In other words,the chiefdom regards as the initial stage during the formation of early state,while the kingdom regards as the advanced stage during the evolution of early states.

Origin of the Willow Leaf -Shaped Bronze Dagger
in the Shang and Zhou Dynasties

Duanyu

The willow leaf -shaped bronze dagger that was found in the region of ancient Shu civilizations, had an early date, large quantity and centralized distribution. From the chronological point of view, in the late Shang dynasty, the willow leaf-shaped bronze dagger of ancient Shu was mainly concentrated in the Chengdu Plain; in the period from the late Shang dynasty to the Western Zhou dynasty, it mainly developed northward, extended to the south of Shanxi; from the Spring and Autumn period, Warring States period to the early Western Han dynasty, it continuously and successively radiated to the eastern part of the Sichuan Basin, the southwest Sichuan, and the region of Xinan-Yi nationality in Yunnan, and Guizhou. Not only the bronze daggers of ancient Shu were willow leaf-shaped, but also mostly the bronze spears, and the stone spears were. The ancient Shu in which excavated such a large number and so centralized willow leaf-shaped bronze daggers, was an important site of dissemination that this type of sword lay in the eastern part of Asia, was also an important source of dissemination that this type of sword lay in China.

In fact the origin of the willow leaf-shaped bronze dagger is not in the ancient Shu area, as in the ancient Shu has not found its sequence of origin and development so far. On the contrary, this type of sword was already a more mature type of sword on emergence in the ancient Shu. This showed that the pattern of this willow leaf-shaped sword was exotic, was the result that ancient Shu absorbing other ancient civilizations.

The willow leaf -shaped bronze dagger originated from the Near East civilizations.

The possible routes that this type of sword spread into ancient Shu, was from Iran through the zone between Eerbushi Mountains and Sulaiman Mountains ranging into the region of India in South Asian, then removing from the region of India into the southwest China. In bronze culture of the India River and the Ganges River basin in South Asia, there were both the willow leaf -shaped bronze dagger and the bronze ax that has tube-shaped hilt. They apparently came from Central Asia. In the Margibi bronze culture of the western part of Central Asia, and the Lulisitan and hornija Wendell bronze culture of Iran, there also had the coexistence of the willow leaf -shaped bronze dagger and the bronze ax that has tube-shaped hilt. This state was from the tradition of the Near East civilizations. In southwest China's bronze culture, the bronze dagger that had the willow leaf -shaped blade was the most common bronze weapon to use. In particular the ancient Shu area, the willow leaf -shaped bronze dagger and the bronze ax that has tube-shaped hilt together formed a common combination of weapons. But in the region Shu we could not find the sites that proved they Originated in local. As a result, we have every reason to believe that they are most likely the bronze cultural factors that were introduced to Central Asia, West Asia through South Asian.

The Two Systems of Ancient Ba-Shu Characters
Duanyu

Content: 1.The review of academic origins. 2. Ba-Shu characters-ideogram. 3. Ba-Shu symbols- hieroglyph. 4. Some differentiations about the nature of Ba-Shu symbols. 5. Ancient Ba-Shu characters and Taoist symbols. 6. The relationship between the two systems of ancient Ba-Shu characters and ancient Chinese characters.

Conclusion: In broad terms, the ancient Ba-Shu characters of two Systems both belong to the system of hieroglyphs, and both developed from hieroglyphs which have three elements-shape, sound and meaning. This is basically the same as any ancient characters system in an early stage of the world's civilization. However, Ba-Shu characters from its origin to the Warring States period, after a thousand years of evolution, its basic form having not changed; still belong to the system of hieroglyphs.This feature also clearly distinguished from ancient Sumer, ancient Egypt and other ancient characters, but had a lot of similarities with the ancient Chinese characters. Just as Prof.Xu Zhongshu said :"Even the character which both has phonetic symbol and character pattern, should also use its character pattern to express the phone without creating another phonetic symbol (shengfu). Therefore, Chinese characters entirely belong to the hieroglyph system."Ba-Shu characters were born of hieroglyph and preserved its feature. The Ba-Shu symbol¢ñwas entirely hieroglyph, symbol¢ò as a phonetic symbol was coming from the evolution of symbols¢ñ.This is the common character between Ba-Shu characters and Chinese characters, and this is also the remarkable feature differencing from any other characters system. Ba-Shu characters and Chinese characters have some common ground in the rule of character constitution. However, their difference should be far away before the Shang dynasty. Just for this reason, the two characters in the thousand years of evolution have always maintained the basic characteristics of hieroglyphs, not directed to the phonograms. It is for this reason also, shortly after the unity of the central plains' states, there emerged some language experts well-known throughout China such as Sima Xiangru, Yang Xiong, etc in Sichuan.

The studies on Ba-Shu characters have enriched the content of the Ba-Shu culture, and proves that ancient Ba-Shu civilization is also a splendid ancient civilization that has characters, as the Shang and Zhou civilization in north China and most ancient civilizations all the world. At the same time, it further proves the Ba-Shu area is another origin of China's ancient civilization.The relationship between the ancient Ba-Shu characters and Chinese characters is an excellent proof of the ancient Chinese civilization having a "structure of the diversified factors all in one".

After Ba-shu ruined by Qin, Ba-Shu characters continued to be used and spread. The first Emperor of Qin implemented the characters unified system. But until the early Han dynasty, Ba-Shu characters was still frequently seen, and after the middle of the Han dynasty, it attributed to disappear as a system. But there were still circulating in civil society. At the last years of Han dynasty, "the symbols book" which zhang Ling received in Heming mountain of Shu area was the remain of Ba-Shu characters. From the Shang and Zhou dynasties to the Warring States period, people in Ba-Shu area used their own characters, also used the characters of Central Plains. There are clear evidence in unearthed bronze wares, lacquer wares and characters on the seal which was found in Yingjing, Xindu, Qingchuan, as well as other locations in Ba-Shu area. This reflects the impact of the central plains' culture to the Ba-Shu culture; On the other hand, this also shows that the Ba-Shu culture is of openness, is not a closed system.

The Ancient Civilization of Ba-Shu and the South Silk Road
Duanyu

The ancient civilization of Ba-Shu is an important part of Chinese civilization. The international economic and cultural exchanges and its channel (that is, the South Silk Road) of the ancient civilization in southwest China that was centered on Ba-Shu, occupied an remarkable position whether in the Chinese civilization history or in the sino-foreign relations history. In recent years, a large number of foreign cultural factors was found in southwest China, in particular on the Ba-Shu areas, as well as Chinese cultural relics especially the Ba-Shu culture relics was found in some areas of South-East Asia, South Asia, Central Asia. That gives us more and more profound understanding of the important status and role that ancient Ba ¨CShu culture has taken in the early history of foreign relations. To explore the origin and development of these cultural factors systematically and deeply, to sort out the related records in Chinese and foreign literature, to be a comprehensive analysis and comparison study, thus to reveal the economic and cultural exchanges and its historical significance of Ba-Shu with South-East Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, West Asia and Europe during the pre-Qin period, Han and Jin dynasties, that has now become a new subject facing the academia. This article aims to primarily reveal the relationship of ancient Ba-Shu civilization and the South Silk Road, by analyzing Chinese and foreign literature, archaeological and anthropological materials, and comparing a large number of related cultural factors and its mode of combination, its way of evolution. 1. Ba-Shu culture and the culture of Yunnan. 2. Ba-Shu culture and civilization in Southeast Asia. 3. Ba-Shu culture and civilization in South Asia. 4. Ba-Shu culture and civilizations in the Near East and ancient Europe.

The ancient silk culture of Ba-Shu disseminated to the West, has enriched the civilization of South Asia, Central Asia, West Asia and the Mediterranean in Europe, and made the South Silk Road extend to Europe. In this sense, Ba-Shu culture is an open culture system, and makes important contributions to the world's ancient civilization.

An Overview of the Studies on Ba-Shu Culture
during Pre-Qin Period and the South Silk Road

Zou Yiqing

Based on academic history, the article mainly introduces the studies, research results and controversial issues on the route and the nature of the South Silk Road during the pre-Qin period, and the economic and cultural exchanges of Ba-Shu areas with Yunnan cultural areas and Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Near East and other regions. 1. The route of the South Silk Road; 2. The nature of the South Silk Road; 3. The studies on cultural exchanges of Ba-Shu Culture with extra-territorial and overseas cultural during the pre-Qin period.

Studies On the Sacrifice of Ivory in Ancient Shu State
Duanyu

The material that the big bronze stand statue of Sanxingdui site at Guanghan held in hands is ivory, is not Jade-Cong. Only the king of Shu State had the right to sacrifice with an entire branch of ivory. The gold scepters that excavated from Sanxingdui site are the emblem of political leaders who has the supreme theocratic authority. The supreme authority is only for the Shu State and its tribe. And the phenomenon that the king of Shu State holding ivory to sacrifice gods is regarded as an emblem of that the king of Shu State being inthroned as co-leader by the leaders of various local ethnic groups in common in the political and cultural sphere of Shu State.

The Northern and Southern Systems
of Gold Products in the Shang Dynasty

Duanyu

Whether in archeology or ancient literature, so far the gold products in the Chinese Neolithic has not been found. In archeology, the Chinese early time's gold products appears in the Bronze Age. At present, an earliest example seen in materials is the gold products which was found in Gansu Yumen City fire trench burial sites in 1976, its age is approximately at the same time with Xia Dynasty. The early time's gold products in China appeared in the Shang Dynasty. From the geographical division, the gold products from Shang Dynasty were found in the southern area of Yellow River and northern area, mainly in Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Shandong, Liaoning and Shanxi. Then in the south were mainly found in Sichuan. These unearthed gold products, no matter from their construction, quantity or manufacture method, or their function system, have the system difference between the north and south, which had reflected different value orientation, value idea as well as other questions in South and the North System of Shang Dynasty. This article tries to make a preliminary discussion about these questions: First, Shang Dynasty's gold products in various of systems; second, Sanxingdui cultures: Shang Dynasty's gold products in south system; third, the similarities and differences between technology systems in north and south; forth, the functional differences between north and south system. The above differences between Shang cultural and the Sanxingdui culture, did not express that both civilization were in the high or low levels, only reflected both had different values.

From Blood Relationship to Geography:
Evolution of Ancient Shu from Chiefdom to State

Duanyu

The ancient Shu state was formed by competing for the resources through three generations of the king. In the scope of Yufu King's royal power, as a result of the multiplication aspects of blood relationship formed in the war of Chiefdom, it was no longer one social unit which was constituted by the blood relationship organization, but evolved the unified political unit which was constituted by the different blood relationship organization, namely take Yufu as the ruler group's political community or the country, this is the ancient Shu Kingdom.

A Brief Discussion on the Relationships
between Ancient Shu and Shang Civilization

Duanyu

The ancient Sichuan Sanxingdui civilization moves toward the heyday, standing with Shang civilization side-by-side in the middle of the Shang Dynasty. The Ancient Shu has a wealth of copper, tin and lead resources because of it controlled the South. But the Shang dynasty had no direct relationship with Yun,nan, but indirect. The Shang Dynasty can only passed ancient Shu to gain Yun,nan's bronze raw material, We may know from the Shang Dynasty ruins and the Hanzhong archaeology that the Shang Dynasty had not conquered the ancient Shu, and ancient Shu was not a subsidiary of the country.. In this case, in order to obtain the bronze raw materials form Yunnan which is in the south of ancient Shu, the Shang dynasty must only use this trade ,obtaining through its trade with Shu ,even had the possibility to carry on the trade directly with Shu, gaining the bronze raw material from the Shu people.

The Studies of Sanxingdui and the Bashu Culture for 70 Years
Duanyu

The proposition of "Bashu culture" was proposed officially in the early-1940s, until now it was already more than a half centuries. If calculated with the first time excavation discovery in Guanghan moon bay from 1933, Sanxingdui and the Bashu culture's research has amounted to the entire 70 years. For 70 years, Sanxingdui and the Bashu culture's research has made the important progress in certain aspects, since the People's Republic of China has established more than 50 years, as a result of the party and government's concern and the support, the archaeology have worked comprehensively, and the massive new materials are published unceasingly, it has achieved a series of amazing new achievements through the academic circle utilizes the new achievement of archaeology quite fully, and carries on the unremitting exploration to the Bashu culture. Not only denies the predecessor so-called "Shu didn't have the ritual music and the writing", moreover proposed the judgment such as "the Sanxingdui civilization", "Bashu culture ancient times the civilization" and "Bashu culture is another place of origin of Chinese civilization", this has caused the widespread attention and the interest by the Chinese and foreign academic circle and the community, and reaches more and more mutual recognitions. All these, just like Professor Li Xueqin summarized recently such: "It is certain that in the absence of an in-depth study of the Ba-Shu culture can not constitute the origin of Chinese civilization and the development of a complete picture","I am afraid that a lot of problems in the Study of Chinese civilization must be settled by the Ba-Shu culture."

According to incomplete statistics, the domestic and foreign newspapers and magazines published related Sanxingdui and the Bashu culture's research are reaching over 1000, in everywhere has had the material effect. This article only from academic background, cultural connotation, archaeology recent discovery's significance, main academic achievement and difference makes a generalized analysis on Sanxingdui and the Bashu culture's research for 70 years, and will propose the not mature view to future main research direction, to provide a reference for all walks of life.

The Bashu Culture and Civilization in the Han and Jin Dynasties
Duanyu

The Chinese ancient civilization is composed by each area's culture. The Qin dynasty unified China from politics, economy, and the area, but the essential feature in various areas are formed by many kinds of factors such as over a thousand year history, the unique geography and so on, they cannot be impossible to wither away suddenly, therefore Qin dynasty's autocratic culture fundamentally had not changed the cultural characteristic between various areas. The Chinese central dynasty picked culture essence in Chinese various districts by the broad mind. On the one hand, in the middle period of the Western Han Dynasty, various districts' culture transfers to shape in full conformity with the Chinese culture, thus the Han Dynasty culture and the academic prospered. On the other hand, the Han Dynasty culture has no alternative but to have the multi-dimensional origin and the areas' cultural characteristic. After transferring the shape in the middle period of Chinese central dynasty, the culture's energetic power mainly came from two aspects: First, the central dynasty took this achievement "road of the wealth advantage" for its dominant need by the way of the clear study, attracting the national outstanding person to continue to study even in one's old age to be used by the royal government; Second, the central dynasty adopt the tolerant policy to the various areas' culture, this played the important condensation and the extension role in the typical personality, the behavior way, the value idea ,the manners and customs, the artistic form, the style and so on for the integrity shape, stable and the inheritance. Under this kind of historical perspective, Han Dynasty's Bashu culture had climbed up the Chinese culture peak rapidly as a result of the Chinese dynasty's guidance, also had played strong character in the Han and Jin's cultural history stage. Based on these understanding, this article tries from us several aspects such as academic and religion, to makes a preliminary discussion about the relations between the Bashu culture and civilization of Hanjin: 1.Bashu culture and Confucianist, 2. Bashu culture and celestial beings, 3.Bashu culture and Taoism, 4. Bashu culture and Taoism, 5.Bashu culture and Wei Jin atmosphere.

A Contrast in City Polymerizing Mode of Chengdu
between Sino-foreign Countries

Duanyu & Zou Yiqing

The polymerizing mode of a city is the foundation of its inner structure, function system, space frame and major developing orientation in the initial period. The different polymerizing modes direct different ways a city forming and decide different city characters. For Chengdu City, in whose course of formation, the promoting force of majesty is the main characteristic and industry and commerce are significant reasons for the polymerization. Thanks to the two points, which also affect the development of the history of the city, Chengdu becomes a free city and a industrial and commercial center. The polymerizing mode of Chengdu City is different with Sanxingdui, the middle field of China and Mesopotamia.

SeveralIssues on Research of Zang-Yi Corridor
Li Shaoming

Mr. Fei Xiaotong expatiated 5 times on the matter of Zang-Yi Corridor. In several years of research on Zang- Yi Corridor, the academe has made progress on various aspects. Nevertheless, there are still matters need to be further discussed. This text and expatiates on these matters and concludes into 8 parts: nationality corridor theory, Zang- Yi Corridor range, archeology, national history, national language, national culture, relation of zoology and nation, and the development of national economy.

Material and Research on Economic History
of the Ba and Shu States during Pre- Qin period
Zou Yiqing

Since 1930s, researches on Sanxingdui and Shu Culture have lasted over 70 years. Even more, important progresses on archeology made from 1980s provide latest and abundant material to this research. From unremitting researches, academia have got a series of infusive achievements, which not only deny the old saying of "No ceremony, no music and no letter in Shu", but also put a thesis of "Sanxingdui Civilization", "Ancient civilization of Shu ", "Shu is another cradle land for Chinese culture".

From incompleteness statistic, learning works about Shu on magazines and publication in China and overseas are over 1000. These works bring extensive influence in and out of China. These study are mainly in tribes, clime and migrate, politics, economy and social conformation, headspring and formation of civilization, cultural exchange and communicate, letter and symbol in Shu, religion, arts, science and technology, etc. The text is a complex analysis on materials and progresses of economic history of Shu in Pre-Qin Dynasty.

Review the Essential Characteristics
of Ancient Civilization through the Sanxingdui Culture

Duanyu

Ancient Shu State in the Shang Dynasty, marked by Sanxingdui Culture, was a theocratic state. Archeological researches on material characters Sanxingdui Culture have made significant progresses. However, immaterial characters are still left to be fully revealed in different stages and from various points of view. Over Sanxingdui Culture, the essential character of ancient civilization is that a political organization develops from cheefdom. It is country, which can control and possess essential resources.

The Sanxingdui Civilization
Duanyu & Zou Yiqing

This book of "Sanxingdui civilization" is divided into a preamble, the dawn of civilization; a sign of civilization; the theocratic system of government;agriculture is the foundation of civilization; the handicraft industry is a pillar of civilization;city ,traffic and commerce is the driving force of civilization;of all ethnic groups create a glorious civilization; unique Spiritual world; an open civilization, and other parts of the relatively detailed description of the discovery of the Sanxingdui civilization history of the Sanxingdui civilization on the form of material and spiritual connotations. The Sanxingdui civilization in all aspects of setting out the Sanxingdui civilization is the opening of civilization, both inclusive, but also has regional; Sanxingdui civilization is the pre-Qin period, the upper reaches of the Yangtze River civilization, in the form of Chinese civilization has a very important position .

The book in the academic breakthrough, the Sanxingdui civilization and Egypt, India, Mesopotamia's ancient civilization were some of the comparative study. In particular with Mesopotamia in the city, religion, commerce, agriculture, irrigation, handicrafts and so on a comparative study that the Sanxingdui civilization in all of the above characteristics are, agricultural irrigation, have shown the concept and technology of the original Department.

The charactoristic of the book is a major feature with the aid of diagrams. About 120 picture book, a vivid image of the performance of the Sanxingdui civilization, and added the text. So easy to become an academic works.

Exploring the Ba Culture in Sichuan Basin
Linxian

The high-level central cultural relics and radiation center ofthe Ba culture has not been found. It was the "ancient Shu civilization"in the Sichuan Basin and adjacent areas during the Xia , Shang and Zhou period . "Ba people" lived in Jianghan Plain got into the eastern part of Sichuan Basin in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, the "Ba culture"just formed by the "Ba people" and the original inhabitants of Su area ,thus they formed together"the Ba-Shu culture zone".It is the reasons for"the Ba culture" or " site of Ba " has not been found in Three Gorges during the Xia ,Shang and Western Zhou period. Look for the "Ba culture" prior to the Eastern Zhou Dynasty and "early Ba culture" should be in the Han River Basin and the Jianghan Plain, which is particularly concerned about the Han River basin.The Ba culture and Chu culture were close ties between the evolution of a cause for concern. And the prior thougt about the Luojiaba site belonging in the Ba cultural sites should belong in the "Cong culture"of "the Ba culture" . The Lijiaba site has the relationship with Cong and Peng.

The Legends and Facts of the Origins of Ba People
Duanyu

During the Pre-Qin period ,Ba people were sub-national groups formed by Multi-ethnic. As a result of the various branches of different sources, on its own source of the legend was different. As the ancient literature based on the geographical and age differences, resulting in academic circles for the meaning of Ba, the Ba people and an area, Ba sources King's family, as well as a number of pre-Qin whether Ba issues such as the long-standing differences. Ba people does not mean the Ba state, the Ba state is only one during the pre-Qin, that is the BaJI , enfeoffment by Zhou Wuwang, is one of the well-known faminy name of Ji in Hanyang. JI is the rulers and the royal family of the Ba state, and rules the eight minorities in Ba area. 1.different meaning of the Ba ; 2. origions of Ba,ss ancestors ; 3.origins of the eight minorities in Ba area; 4.origions of the royal family of the Ba state; 5.several concept of Ba.

Formation of the Ba Culture and the Ba-Chu Culture
during Pre-Qin Period

Duanyu

The Ba state is an ancient civilization, it has been known to the world as early as the Shang Dynasty. From the Shang Dynasty to the Western Zhou Dynasty, the Ba state founded in the upper reaches of Hanjiang River.During the Spring and Autumn, it entered the East Hanjiang River, and leagued of political and military with the Chu state, and occurrence of war and all kinds of relations. At the same time, the number of active groups, which stood in Sichuan and the west Hubei called the Ba area, occurred on a different line with the Ba state. The so-called Ba culture, in fact, prior to the Warring States includes Ba area and the Ba culture and cultural components of the two-level or two, whether in the area or face the obvious differences, due to the Warring States period when The Ba state moved south of the Yangtze River Basin, the Ba state from cultural and geographical patterns on the full integration. Ba-Chu the so-called culture, it mainly refers to the original post for the Ba and Chu geographical, cultural and Ba-Chu symbiotic culture, the performance of a half or semi-Chu ,also the Ba nation and also local culture .


The Rise of the Bronze Culture
in the Region of the Yangtze River of Eastern Chongqing

Duanyu

The early bronze culture in the area of the Yangtze River of eastern Chongqing was seeded during the Shang and Zhou period. During the Eastern Zhou period, due to the Ba state moved to the Yangtze River, and to promote access to the region's Bronze Age civilization reached its peak, Lijiaba at Yunyang in Chongqing ,a large number of bronze ware unearthed in the cemetery is a typical representative of the region. In the tombs at Lijiaba unearthed a large number of bronze weapons,so the settlement showes significant nature of the military. Lijiaba bronze weapons, in particular in the Chongqing Yangtze River is very representative, it reflects the bronze civilization in the region rised with frequent and intense war during the Eastern Zhou period.Ba's bronze ware in the Warring States period has been found in various locations in the Chongqing Yangtze River and Jialing River in east Sichuan Basin, such situation shows that the Ba state entering Sichuan basin was along the Yangtze River from the Three Gorges.


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